What is FASD?
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is brain damage caused by pre-natal exposure to alcohol. FASD is often termed an “invisible physical handicapping condition.” The effects of prenatal alcohol and other drug exposure on the developing brain are the most debilitating aspects of this condition. Often, the only indicators of this physical disability are found in learning and other behavioral characteristics.
Parents and professionals often find standard techniques are ineffective. Many people experience increasing frustration over time when children’s behaviors are unresponsive to traditional interventions. Until recently, there has been little information linking the “organicity, ” or neurological differences associated with FASD, with behaviors.
Information linking brain function with behaviors increases understanding, reduces frustration, and contributes to successful outcomes. Knowledge about FASD and organicity provides a way to shift perceptions: Children may be understood as having a
problem rather than being the problem. As a result, rethinking and reframing interpretations of behaviors contributes to developing effective and appropriate strategies, “trying differently rather than trying harder.” Successful strategies support children, and contribute to the well-being of parents and professionals.
The following neurodevelopmental characteristics are commonly associated with FASD. No one or two is necessarily diagnostically significant; many overlap characteristics of other diagnoses, e.g. ADD/ADHD, learning disabilities, and others. Typical primary characteristics in children, adolescents, and adults include:
- Difficulty storing and retrieving information
- Inconsistent performance (“on” and “off”) days
- Impulsivity, distractibility, disorganization
- Ability to repeat instructions, but inability to put them into action (“talk the talk but don’t walk the walk”)
- Difficulty with abstractions, such as math, money management, time concepts
- Cognitive processing deficits (may think more slowly)
- Slow auditory pace (may only understand every third word of normally paced conversation)
- Developmental lags (may act younger than chronological age)
- Inability to predict outcomes or understand consequence
Many people with FASD have strengths which mask their cognitive challenges.
- Highly verbal
- Bright in some areas
- Artistic, musical, mechanical
- Friendly, outgoing, affectionate
- Determined, persistent
- Good with younger children
Preventable Secondary Characteristics
In the absence of identification, people with FASD often experience chronic frustration. Over time, patterns of defensive behaviors commonly develop. These characteristics are believed to be preventable with appropriate supports.
- Fatigue, tantrums
- Irritability, frustration, anger, aggression
- Fear, anxiety, avoidance, withdrawal
- Shut down, lying, running away
- Trouble at home, school, and community
- Legal trouble
- Drug / Alcohol abuse
- Mental health problems (depression, self injury, suicidal tendencies)
A recent study by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) addressing the prevalence of FASD in the United States can be found by following this link.